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[mcg] B12 from (plant) fermentation
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  1. #1
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    Default B12 from (plant) fermentation

    From http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20040131/food.asp :

    Bacteria Brew a B Vitamin Boost


    Janet Raloff


    When looking for naturally rich sources of cobalamin, better known as vitamin B12, most people turn to meats. Because the essential nutrient generally isn't present in plants, vegetarians run the risk of deficiency, which can cause neurological symptoms from tingling toes to disorientation and memory problems. Many of these people therefore turn to synthetic supplements or certain algal products rich in B12, such as tablets made from the blue-green Chlorella species.

    However, anyone looking for a B12 boost might find an even more palatable source of the important vitamin in certain teas treated with bacteria, Japanese chemists now show. Various bacteria can make B12, and the researchers confirmed substantial quantities of the vitamin B12 in Batabata-cha, a so-called fermented black tea.

    Unusual forms of Asian black tea, prepared using bacteria, can lace their brews with vitamin B12, making them some of the rare plant-based foods to offer this beneficial nutrient.

    Most Western black teas, such as Darjeeling and Keemun, fall into a category known as self-oxidized. For these products, tea harvesters spread freshly picked leaves on wire screens so they'll wither, losing up to 70 percent of their moisture. The limp leaves then get passed under rollers. Tea enzymes released from cells within the leaves during the process begin what's termed auto-oxidation, in which oxygen-driven chemical processes transform the green leaves into brown "fermented" leaves over a period of 30 minutes to a few hours.

    For some Asian black teas, however, processors enlist bacteria to control the oxidation. Knowing that the microbes can introduce various other compounds into tea leaves, Hiromi Kittaka-Katsura of Kyoto Women's University and her colleagues investigated whether B12 might be one of them. It's a member of a family of cobalt-based compounds known as corrinoids. Kittaka-Katsura's team had experience in such analyses, having recently confirmed the presence of B12 in Chlorella seaweed sold as tablets in Asian health food stores.

    First the chemists brewed up some Batabata-cha. Then they used two different analytical techniques to confirm the presence of corrinoids in the liquid. When the scientists then ran the same tests on the type of B12 that's used in dietary supplements and enriched foods, cyano-B12, the results matched those for one of the tea's corrinoids. This confirmed that one of the tea products was indeed B12.

    Reduces vitamin deficiency

    To confirm that the body also recognizes the compound as B12, Kittaka-Katsura's group substituted the tea for the drinking water administered to young-adult rats for 6 weeks. These animals had been raised on a vitamin B12?deficient diet. Other B12-deficient rats instead received regular water or water laced with cyano-B12.

    Urine tests confirmed that the rodents drinking tea became decreasingly vitamin-deficient. In fact, they improved more than the rats receiving B12 supplements. Animals getting regular water stayed vitamin-deficient throughout the test. The tea-drinking rats also grew more rapidly than all the other rats. Kittaka-Katsura's group concludes that the free form of B12 in the tea is absorbed more efficiently than the cyano-B12.

    In fact, Kittaka-Katsura told Science News Online, her group's tests indicate that ordinarily, 70 percent of the tea's corrinoids exist as cyanocobalamin and the rest as methyl- or adenosyl-cobalamin - two forms of B12 that are more easily taken up and used by the body. However, she adds, because of the way her team prepared the tea for the animal-feeding trials, the cyano form was not present. The food scientist notes that this may explain why the tea's B12 outperformed the cyano form provided as a supplement to some of the other rats.

    Drinking even a liter or two of the tea, depending on its brewed strength, would deliver only about 20 to 40 nanograms of B12, the researchers note„far too little to satisfy the recommended daily intake of about 2.4 micrograms. However, Kittaka-Katsura's team points out that it might be possible to create fermented-tea extracts as supplements more potent than such teas.

    For now, she says her team is looking to confirm the tea's B12 potency in tests with people.




    References:

    Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/books/0309065542/html/index.html.


    Kittaka-Katsura, H., et al. In press. Characterization of corrinoid compounds from a Japanese black tea (Batabata-cha) fermented by bacteria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.


    Further Readings:

    Kittaka-Katsura, H., et al. 2002. Purification and characterization of a corrinoid compound from Chlorella tablets as an algal health food. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(August):4994-4997.


    Raloff, J. 2000. Academic impacts of vegetarian childhoods. Science News Online (Oct. 7). Available at http://www.sciencenews.org/20001007/food.asp.


    ______. 1998. Microwaves bedevil a B vitamin. Science News 153(Feb. 14):105.


    Seachrist, L. 1996. Government guidelines okay vegetarian diet. Science News 149(Jan.6):6.


    Sources:

    Hiromi Kittaka-Katsura
    Department of Food and Nutrition
    Kyoto Women's University
    Kyoto 605-8501
    Japan
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  2. #2
    ConsciousCuisine
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    Kombucha Tea, 'round these parts...I make my own.

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    Poor rats.

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    Default B12 in fermented tea

    Nutritional and medicinal improvement of black tea by yeast fermentation
    Chand Pasha, Gopal Reddy * Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, AP, India
    Food Chemistry 89 (2005) 449–453

    Black tea fermentation with Dabaryomyces hansenii for 10 days resulted in accumulation of major vitamins, such as A, B1, B2, B12 and C in sufficient quantities to fulfil the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Fermentation of tea by yeast resulted in reduction of caffeine and excess tannins in significant amounts. After fermentation, the amount of theophylline was increased to make fermented tea a potent bronchodilator. Tea fermentation with D. hansenii improved its nutritional and medicinal values. Our observations suggest that intake of fermented tea is advantageous over black tea in terms of its nutritive and therapeutic values.

    http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/18856/Arti...processing.pdf
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    Default B12 from plant fermentation

    http://www.lifeinkorea.com/culture/k...xURL=nutrition

    Kimchi has high levels Vitamin B, C, and Beta Carotene. The levels of Vitamin B1 and B2, and B12 double after a 3 week-fermentation period.

    http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi...urnalCode=jfds
    Inoculation of kimchi, a Korean style fermented Chinese cabbage, with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ss. shermanii (ATCC No. 13673) increased vitamin B12 production to a maximum of 102 ng/100g from 47 ng/100g in the control at 1 wk of fermentation at 4°C. Soy flour (0.5%) or beef extract (0.05%), added as protein sources to the inoculated kimchi, further increased the vitamin activity to 197 and 203 ng/100g, respectively, at 1 wk. The fresh, unfermented kimchi contained 16.8 mg of ascorbic acid per 100g and the vitamin decreased at a constant rate during the first 5 wk of fermentation.
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  6. #6
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    Default Fermentation increases the B12 levels in palm wine

    Palm wine can be consumed in a variety of flavours varying from sweet unfermented to sour fermented and vinegary alcoholic drinks. There are many variations and names including emu and ogogoro in Nigeria and nsafufuo in Ghana. It is produced from sugary palm saps. The most frequently tapped palms are raphia palms (Raphia hookeri or R. vinifera) and the oil palm (Elaeis guineense). Palm wine has been found to be nutritious. The fermentation process increases the levels of thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxin and vitamin B12.
    More


    http://www.fao.org/docrep/x0560e/x0560e06.htm

    Fermentation processes can result in increased levels of vitamins in the final product. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to concentrate large quantities of thiamin, nicotinic acid and biotin and thus form enriched products.

    Sorghum beer in Southern Africa contains relatively high levels of riboflavin and nicotinic acid, which are important for people consuming a high maize diet. Pellagra (a vitamin deficiency disease associated with high maize diets) is unusual in communities in which sorghum beer is consumed. Even children benefit from consuming the dregs which contain relatively little alcohol but are rich in vitamins.
    Palm wine in West Africa is high in vitamin B12, which is very important for people with low meat intake, and who subsist primarily on a vegetarian diet.
    Pulque (a fermented plant sap) is an important source of vitamins for the economically deprived in Mexico. The fermentation process involved in Pulque production increases its vitamin content. For instance the vitamin content (milligrams of vitamins per 100g of product) of pulque increases from 5 to 29 for thiamine, 54 to 515 for niacin and 18 to 33 for riboflavin (Steinkraus, 1992) during fermentation.
    Idli (a lactic acid bacteria fermented product consumed in India) is high in thiamine and riboflavin.
    http://webdev.ift.org/NR/rdonlyres/C...ms20001201.pdf


    Palm sap is a sweet, clear, colorless liquid containing about 10
    to 12% fermentable sugar and neutral in reaction (Okafor 1975);
    Steinkraus 1979b). Palm wine is a heavy, milk-white opalescent
    suspension of live yeasts and bacteria with a sweet taste and vig-
    orous effervescence. Palm wines are consumed throughout the
    tropics. Palm wine contains as much as 83 mg ascorbic acid/liter
    (Bassir 1968). Thiamine increased from 25 ug to 150 ug/liter, ribo-
    flavin increased from 35 to 50 ug/liter and pyridoxine increased
    from 4 to 18 ug/liter during fermentation. Surprisingly, palm wine
    contains considerable amounts of vitamin B-12, 190 to 280 pg/ml
    (Van Pee and Swings, 1971). Palm toddies play an important role
    in nutrition among the economically disadvantaged in the tropics.
    They are the cheapest sources of B vitamins.
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  7. #7
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    Default B12 from plant fermentation

    White Wave uses B12 that comes from a vegetable glucose fermentation process. There are no animal products in the base culture and our B12 is vegan.
    More
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  8. #8

    Default B-12 in Food stuffs containing Yeast / Fermented Foods

    I am just interested to know about existence of Vitamin B-12 in so many Indian Food Stuffs like Dosa,Idli,Uttapam,Dhokla,Khaman,Jalebi or Bread which are made usually by adding Yeast and they are left for automatic fermentation in them.

    Some says that there is no difference between Yeast and Nutrtional Yeast.

    I want your opinion on this point.


    Manish Jain

  9. #9
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    Default Re: B12 from vegetable glucose fermentation

    More about B12/fermentation from IVU:


    In addition to the consumption of edible plants - their fresh, dried, preserved, frozen and canned parts and substances - diverse other so called processed or manufactured foods can be made by various combinations and procedures. These may result in, for example, kimchi or sauerkraut - fermented vegetables rich in plant source lacto-bacillus; tempeh - soybeans transformed by mycelium; wheatmeat or seitan - produced by washing away starch and retaining gluten; tofu or soy curd - produced by grinding, boiling, then filtering and coagulating the solids; beet pulp - fermented to grow microbes which concentrate cobalt and make it available as cobalamin or Vitamin B12 or provide a harvest of nutritional yeast; wheat grains - squeezed - with or without heat, using high or low pressure and without or with chemical catalysts - to extract oil from which further concentration can isolate Vitamin E; oat fiber - ground into particles so microscopic as to allow them to emulsify and suspend themselves in water as oatmilk; and so on infinitely as long as there is interest in uncovering nature's secrets and constructing pleasing nutritious foods.

  10. #10
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    Default Re: B-12 in Food stuffs containing Yeast/ Fermented Foods

    Quote indianvegan View Post
    I am just interested to know about existence of Vitamin B-12 in so many Indian Food Stuffs like Dosa, Idli, Uttapam, Dhokla, Khaman, Jalebi or Bread which are made usually by adding Yeast and they are left for automatic fermentation in them.
    Hi, as you can see, I have merged some threads about B12 made from fermentation, so you'll find some info about B12 and fermentation in the other posts in this thread now.

    You asked the question a long time ago, and I guess the reason nobody has replied, is that in order to reply, several tests would have to be made from each of these products under controlled conditions, which probably never has happened.

    B12 come from bacteria/microorganisms, and in tests from Jakarta in Indonesia, they found that a bacteria called K. pneumoniae could produce vitamin B12 in tempeh. B12 is different from all other vitamins in that it contains cobalt, it is made from bacteria/microbes, and in a way is complex to synthesize. The B12 found in supplements also needs bacteria to be synthesized (Propionibacterium shermanii and Pseudomonas denitrificans are used).

    Since B12 has been found is soil, river water, ocean water, moss, leaves/bark/moss/roots of trees and many other plants, we know that the bacteria needed to synthesize B12 exists in nature, and so does cobalt. The question is where those bacteria exist, and how bioavailable and effective the synthesized B12 is if the conditions needed to produce it exists, how fresh the food is when being eaten and so on. The same questions are also interesting regarding the B12 found in multivitamin supplements, fortified food and animal products too, which all may contain B12 analogues.

    One day in the future, when more focus and energy is put into in depth research on B12 in the fermentation process and the role of B12 analogues in food, you'll probably get a more useful an answer than this...

  11. #11
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    Default Re: B12 from plant fermentation

    http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/art...i?artid=242746

    Several varieties of soybeans contained generally less than 1 ng of vitamin B-12 per g. It was found that use of a lactic fermentation typical of tropical conditions during the initial soaking of the soybeans did not influence the vitamin B-12 content of the resulting tempeh. Pure tempeh molds obtained from different sources did not produce vitamin B-12. It was found that the major source of vitamin B-12 in commercial tempeh purchased in Toronto, Canada, was a bacterium that accompanies the mold during fermentation. Reinoculation of the pure bacterium onto dehulled, hydrated, and sterilized soybeans resulted in the production of 148 ng of vitamin B-12 per g. The presence of the mold, along with the bacterium, did not inhibit or enhance production of vitamin B-12. Nutritionally significant amounts of vitamin B-12 were also found in the Indonesian fermented food, ontjom.
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  12. #12
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    Default B12 in Indian idli, Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbook...e/80434E0a.htm


    Asians, particularly the Indonesians, have introduced meat-like textures into vegetable substrates. A prime example is Indonesian tempeh in which soybeans are soaked, dehulled, briefly cooked, cooled, inoculated with the mould Rhizopus oligosporus, wrapped in wilted banana or other large leaves, and fermented from 36 to 48 hours. During this time the white mould-mycelium knits the soybean cotyledons into a tight cake that can be sliced thin and deep-fat fried or cut into chunks and used in soups (20 - 22). Tempeh is a major meat substitute in Indonesia, and it is produced daily by small factories in the villages.

    Containing nearly 47 per cent protein, it is very nutritious and, in fact, kept thousands of Westerners alive in Japanese prisoner-of-war camps during World War I I. The mould not only introduces texture, but it also solubilizes the proteins and lipids, making them more digestible. It releases a peppery flavour that adds to the nutty flavour of the soybean substrate. The mould doubles the riboflavin content, increases the niacin level by almost seven times, decreases pantothenate slightly, and, unfortunately, decreases thiamine content, but surprisingly vitamin B12 is found in nutritionally significant amounts (23).

    One of the problems of vegetarian diets is that vegetable foods generally do not contain significant vitamin B12. It was found that a bacterium sometimes present in the mould is responsible for the vitamin B12 in tempeh (24). If the fermentation is carried out with pure mould, the tempeh does not contain B12. If the bacterium is present, the tempeh will contain as much as 150 mg B12 per g. Thus, this single food provides both protein and vitamin B12 for vegetarians.

    There are at least five vegetarian communes in the United States today (for example, The Farm, Summertown, Tennessee) where tempeh has been adopted as the major protein source, replacing meat in the diet. In California, Nebraska, and Canada (Toronto), there are at least six small factories producing tempeh commercially. The acceptance of this Indonesian food technology in the United States and Canada suggests that the technology could also be extended to developing countries, thus improving the diversity and nutritive value of the diets of the poor.

    It has already been demonstrated that the tempeh process can be used to introduce texture into other substrates made, not only from soybeans, but from wheat and other cereals as well (25). A bacterium has also been used to raise the content of vitamin B12 in Indian idli, which is made by fermenting a batter of ground soaked rice and black gram dahl with Leuconostoc mesenteroides (26).

    There is a similarity between the Miller, Rank, Hovis, MacDougall meat analogue process discussed above and tempeh production In both cases, the texture is derived from mould mycelium, but the former process is sophisticated and relatively costly, while the latter is low-cost technology.
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  13. #13

    Default Re: B12 in kimchi double after 3-week fermentation

    What about Fermentation process take place in bread?

    Indian Sweet Stuff "Jalebi" It is fermented white flour and batter than deep friend in oil and soaked in hot sugar syrup. Jalebi's batter kept for fermentation for atleast 2-3 days.

    Manish Jain

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    Default Re: B12 from plant fermentation

    I don't know anything about B12 and the fermentation process in bread, Manish - sorry. But since Indonesian ontjom, Korean kimchi, African palm wine, tempeh from Jakarta, Indian idli and American fermented black tea all contain B12 (if the fermentation process is done right), and since B12 supplements partially are produced by using the fermentation process, it's quite possible that B12 is produced in other process involving fermentation as well.

    Now, some people may be skeptical about getting vegan B12 from fermented products (with or without a valid reason - not all fermentation results in B12 production, the result is dependent on the presence of the right natural bacteria), but still - if they choose to eat B12 from supplements instead, they may still eat vegan B12 from fermented plants (with the advantage that it's produced in an controlled environment).


    BTW: here's a B12 production plant for sale, if someone is interested!
    http://www.vitaminb12production.ch/

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    Default B12 in Torula yeast

    http://jb.asm.org/cgi/reprint/140/3/1013.pdf:
    Candida utilis has been shown to contain 4.7 pmol of cobalamin per g of wet
    cell paste.
    http://www.biocel.cz/enghtml/vitmain.htm
    TORULA YEAST VITEX

    VITEX is a pure primary grown nutritional yeast produced in our modern biotechnological plant with one of the largest fermentation capacities in the world. Yeast cells, strain Candida utilis, are grown in a medium, obtained directly from spruce wood, under conditions which permit the highest quality standards.
    [...]
    Vitamin B12: 0,04 mg/kg

    0,04 milligrams = 40 mcg, which means that 60 gram torula yeast contains 2,4 mcg B12.

  16. #16
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    Default Re: B12 from plant fermentation

    Here's another article confirming that the B12 found in supplements not only comes from fermentation, the writer suggests that B12 in commercial production is 'entirely' from fermentation:

    http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/em...rrent/abstract

    Abstract
    Vitamin B12 is the generic name for a closely related group of substances of microbial origin. The compounds are octahedral cobalt corrin complexes varying primarily in one axial ligand. Vitamin B12 functions as coenzyme in a number of rearrangement reactions, as well as in the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. A total synthesis of cyanocobalamin has been achieved. Commercial production, however, is entirely by fermentation of species such as Pseudomonas dentrificans.

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    Default Re: B12 from plant fermentation

    fermentation is something the modern lifestyle doesnt have enough of. In tribes, ancient or not, still living in nature, fermentation is a way to store the food, when not having a fridge; fermentation is something our ancestors have been doing for thousands and thousands of years, and our bodies are adapted to it, and need it.
    In modern times we use fridges, preservatives, sugar... Why not go back to some of the anciant habits?
    I've had had a lot of problems with bad/slow digestion, and people talk about fibers all the time. But i 've been eating loads of fibers the last 15 years...and still problems digesting... but for me, adding fermented food was the thing that really helped my digestion....

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    Default Re: B12 from plant fermentation

    ...and do you know some of fermentations that products B12?...and in wich form do they produce it?...'cause i heard that human body can not use all forms of that vitamine...
    ...going to test my B12 soon...gatta admit that i'm a little bit worry... :O

  19. #19
    RubyDuby
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    Default Re: B12 from plant fermentation

    You can take a vegan vitamin if you're worried.

    I believe natto has B12? I liked it at first but now it makes me gag... shouldn't have tried eating it without seasoning it.
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    Default Re: B12 from plant fermentation

    ...but i heard that vitamin B12 has active and inactive forms...so...i dont know where the active form (methylcobalamin) is... im very confused...

  21. #21
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    Default Re: B12 from plant fermentation

    It is confusing. The production of the B12 found in supplements also involves a fermentation process, and both multivitamins and animal products may contain inactive B12 analogues. Plus, it doesn't help much that some people use the term B12 analog both about both active and inactive B12. while others always mean 'inactive' when they write about analogs...

    Maybe this thread is interesting for you:
    B12 and B12 analogues in multivitamins, animal foods and spirulina

    Disclaimer: it could also make you more confused.
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    Default Re: B12 from plant fermentation

    ...yup...thought i understand SOMETHING...now i understand NOTHING...
    ...guess i'll gave to visit my high school chemistryteacher...and go to my collage library (guess the medical school library MUST have something about active B12 )...
    ...hm, one more silly question: what about parsley (wrote on few places that he HAS B12)

  23. #23
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    Default Re: B12 from plant fermentation

    one more silly question: what about parsley
    The question isn't silly, but I don't know the answer.

    Anyway, here's a link to a thread on veganfitness.com, called B12 Breaking News: Old fermentation method rediscovered
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    Default Re: B12 from (plant) fermentation

    Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from sourdough, is able to produce cobalamin:

    Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098 produces cobalamin PMID: 12949118

    We found that Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from sourdough, is able to produce cobalamin. The sugar-glycerol cofermentation in vitamin B(12)-free medium showed that this strain was able to reduce glycerol through a well-known cobalamin-dependent reaction with the formation of 1,3-propanediol as a final product. The cell extract of L. reuteri corrected the coenzyme B12 requirement of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 7830 and allowed the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (metE cbiB) and Escherichia coli (metE) in minimal medium. Preliminary genetic studies of cobalamin biosynthesis genes from L. reuteri allowed the identification of cob genes which encode the CobA, CbiJ, and CbiK enzymes involved in the cobalamin pathway. The cobamide produced by L. reuteri, isolated in its cyanide form by using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, showed a UV-visible spectrum identical to that of standard cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12).
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    Default Re: B12 from (plant) fermentation

    Nutritional quality of lactic fermented bitter gourd and fenugreek leaves. (I'm cross-posting this link since the writers suggest that vitamin B12 was formed in the fenugreek as a result of the fermentation.)
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    Default Re: B12 from (plant) fermentation

    I don't know if this is the right place for this question but I would like to know, please, in which thread appears the information about the man who wanted to commercialize b12 made at home from fermentation (if I remember properly). I wanted to know as well what happened with him as this idea is from some years ago.
    Thank you in advance.

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    Default Re: B12 from (plant) fermentation

    [PMID:25114554]
    Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods


    Abstract

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made offermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases.
    http://www.vrg.org/nutshell/faqingredients.htm :
    "What about those ingredients that sound like they are from milk, such as lactic acid, lactose, and lactate?If it's lactate or lactic acid, it's not from dairy (exception - sterol lactate due to the stearic acid). "Lac" ingredients are usually produced by a fermentation process using cornstarch or beet sugar. Lactose is always from dairy. Most ingredients made with with calcium are vegan (i.e. calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate). The exceptions are calcium caseinate and calcium stearate. Drink up the calcium fortified o.j. - it's vegan!"
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  28. #28
    Ex-admin Korn's Avatar
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    Default Re: B12 from (plant) fermentation

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2394963/ :
    High-Level Folate Production in Fermented Foods by the B12 ProducerLactobacillus reuteri JCM1112

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  29. #29
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    Default Re: B12 from (plant) fermentation

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11935176:
    Abstract

    One of the most alluring and fascinating molecules in the world of science and medicine is vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which was originally discovered as the anti pernicious anemia factor and whose enigmatic complex structure is matched only by the beguiling chemistry that it mediates. The biosynthesis of this essential nutrient is intricate, involved and, remarkably, confined to certain members of the prokaryotic world, seemingly never have to have made the eukaryotic transition. In humans, the vitamin is required in trace amounts (approximately 1 microg/day) to assist the actions of only two enzymes, methionine synthase and (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase; yet commercially more than 10 t of B12 are produced each year from a number of bacterial species. The rich scientific history of vitamin B12 research, its biological functions and the pathways employed by bacteria for its de novo synthesis are described. Current strategies for the improvement of vitamin B12 production using modern biotechnological techniques are outlined.



    [PMID:11935176]
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  30. #30
    Ex-admin Korn's Avatar
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    Default

    "....fermented tomato pomace (dried) with 50-55 mg kg(-1) or more of B12 could prove a useful feedstuff for animals".
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  31. #31
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    Default

    "....fermented tomato pomace (dried) with 50-55 mg kg(-1) or more of B12 could prove a useful feedstuff for animals".


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11341680
    Utilisation of tomato pomace as a substrate for the production of vitamin B12--a preliminary appraisal.

    Abstract

    The cellulose fraction in tomato pomace was hydrolysed using Trichoderma reesei, and the resultant sugars were fermented with Propionibacterium shermanii to produce vitamin B12. A multifactorial experiment revealed that aeration of the culture of T. reesei gave substantial improvements in cellulase activity as did higher concentrations of available nitrogen, but a rapid drop in pH appeared to inhibit extensive hydrolysis; after 14 days, the maximum level of cellulose degradation was only 34.4% of the total available, and the highest level of reducing sugars achieved was 15 g l(-1). When flasks with the latter concentration of reducing sugars were inoculated with P. shermanii, 11.1 mg l(-1) of B12 were produced under optimum conditions. If the degree of hydrolysis of the cellulose could be increased, then sufficient vitamin B12 might be generated to justify extraction but, even if purification does not prove to be economically feasible, a fermented tomato pomace (dried) with 50-55 mg kg(-1) or more of B12 could prove a useful feedstuff for animals.

    PMID: 11341680
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  32. #32
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    Default Re: B12 from (plant) fermentation

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11020912

    Cyanocobalamin absorption abnormality in alcoholics is improved by oral supplementation with a fermented papaya-derived antioxidant.


    Abstract

    BACKGROUND/AIMS:

    Thirty alcoholic patients and 24 teetotaler dyspeptic patients were considered and underwent baseline blood chemical evaluation and the Schilling test.
    METHODOLOGY:

    During gastroscopy, biopsy samples were taken to assay: routine histology, malonyldialdehyde, vitamin E and glutathione concentration and for testing vitamin B12-Intrinsic Factor binding. Examinations were repeated after 1-week supplementation with Bionormalizer.
    RESULTS:

    Plasma malonyldialdehyde level and lipid hydroperoxides concentration as well as either malonyldialdehyde and xanthine oxidase concentration in the gastric mucosa in alcoholics were significantly higher than in controls and despite unchanged alcohol consumption, significantly decreased after Bionormalizer supplementation. Gastric mucosal glutathione was markedly depressed in alcoholics and partly recovered after Bionormalizer supplementation. Although the alcoholics showed a normal intrinsic factor secretion in the gastric juice, they exhibited a markedly depressed intrinsic factor-cobalamin binding on the "ex vivo" study. Moreover, nearly 23% of them had an abnormal Schilling test. Both these impairments reverted to normal after Bio-normalizer supplementation.
    CONCLUSIONS:

    It can be postulated that the antioxidative action played by Bionormalizer, possibly due to its availability substrates for glutathione synthesis as well as to its effects on local oxidative burst from neutrophil, is able to recover a normal cobalamin absorption.
    PMID:11020912
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